The following are the most current scientific writings on AFMA’s position. We strongly suggest that scientists who want to understand this topic read the entire list in addition to the book Animal Models in Light of Evolution. Transdisciplinary subjects are not subject to understanding after a few hours of skimming the literature.


  1. Lisa A. Kramer and Ray Greek. (2018.) Human Stakeholders and the Use of Animals in Drug Development  Business and Society Review 123 (1):3-58.
  2. Greek, R. (2016.) Comment on “Lessons from Toxicology: Developing a 21st‑Century Paradigm for Medical Research.” Environmental Health Perspectives. May, 2016;124:5.
  3. Greek R (2015) Editorial. Systems Biology. Biological Systems4:e112. doi: 10.4172/2329-6577.1000e112.
  4. Greek, Ray. 2014. A Discussion of the Role of Complex Evolved Systems in the Development of Invasive Cardiovascular Interventions as Illustrated by the Blalock-Taussig Shunt and Intra-Arterial Stents. Biological Systems – Open Access 3:1 
  5. Greek, Ray. 2014. "Letter to the Editor." Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 35 (5):389-394. doi: 10.1007/s11017-014-9305-5. Submitted version can be read here.
  6. Greek, R. (2014) The Ethical Implications for Humans in Light of the Poor Predictive Value of Animal Models. International Journal of Clinical Medicine, 5, 966-1005. doi: 10.4236/ijcm.2014.516129.
  7. Greek, R and LA Hansen. (2013) Questions regarding the predictive value of one evolved complex adaptive system for a second: Exemplified by the SOD1 mouse. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology.
  8. Greek, R and LA Hansen. (2013) The Strengths and Limits of Animal Models as Illustrated by the Discovery and Development of Antibacterials. Biological Systems: Open Access 2:109. doi: 10.4172/BSO.1000109
  9. Jones, R., & Greek, R. (2013). A Review of the Institute of Medicine’s Analysis of using Chimpanzees in Biomedical Research. Science and Engineering Ethics, 1-24, doi:10.1007/s11948-013-9442-7.
  10. Greek R, Menache A. Systematic Reviews of Animal Models: Methodology versus Epistemology. Int J Med Sci 2013; 10(3):206-221. doi:10.7150/ijms.5529
  11. Ray Greek and Lawrence A Hansen. The Development of Deep Brain Stimulation for Movement Disorders J Clinic Res Bioeth 2012, 3:137. doi: 10.4172/2155-9627.1000137
  12. Greek, R. Book Review. Zoobiquity: What Animals Can Teach Us About Health and the Science of Healing. Animals. 2012, 2(4), 559-563; doi:10.3390/ani2040559
  13. Greek, R and Mark J Rice. Animal models and conserved processes. Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2012, 9:40 doi:10.1186/1742-4682-9-40
  14. Greek, R. Pippus, A. Hansen, L. The Nuremberg Code subverts human health and safety by requiring animal modeling. BMC Medical Ethics 2012 Jul 8;13(1):16. doi:10.1186/1472-6939-13-16
  15. Greek, R. Animal Models and the Development of an HIV Vaccine. J AIDS Clinic Res 2012, S8. doi: 10.4172/2155-6113.S8-001
  16. Greek, R. Menache, A. Rice M. Animal models in an age of personalized medicine. Personalized Medicine. January 2012, Vol. 9, No. 1, Pages 47-64, DOI 10.2217/pme.11.89 (doi:10.2217/pme.11.89)
  17. Greek R, Hansen LA, Menache A. An analysis of the Bateson Review of research using nonhuman primates. Medicolegal and Bioethics 2011;1(1):3-22. doi:
  18. Greek, Ray. Patients Are Not Rodents Writ Large. American Journal of the Medical Sciences. 2011;342(4):345.
  19. Greek, Ray, Niall Shanks, and Mark J Rice. The History and Implications of Testing Thalidomide on Animals. The Journal of Philosophy, Science & Law. Volume 11, October 3, 2011.
  20. Greek, Ray and Niall Shanks. Complex systems, evolution, and animal models. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences. 2011 Dec;42(4):542-4 doi:10.1016/j.shpsc.2011.07.001  PMID: 22035727
  21. Greek, R and Greek, J. Is the use of sentient animals in basic research justifiable? Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 2010, 5:14.
  22. Shanks N, Greek R, Greek J. Are animal models predictive for humans? Philos Ethics Humanit Med. 2009 Jan 15;4(1):2.
  23. Greek J, Greek R. Thoughts on the benefits of personalized medicine. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2009 Jan 1;234(1):40.
  24. Shanks, N. and Greek, R. Experimental use of nonhuman primates is not a simple problem. Nature Medicine. October 2008;14(10):807-8.
  25. Greek, R. Letter to Editor. American Scientist January-February 2008:96(1):4.
  26. Rice, M.J., The institutional review board is an impediment to human research: the result is more animal-based research. Philosophy, ethics, and humanities in medicine : PEHM, 2011. 6: p. 12.
  1. Greek, Ray, and Lisa Kramer. 2019. "How to Evaluate the Science of Non-human Animal Use in Biomedical Research and Testing: A Proposed Format for Debate." In Animal Experimentation: Working Towards a Paradigm Change. Human-Animal Studies. Volume 22., edited by Kathrin Herrmann and Kimberley Jayne, 65-87. Boston: Brill.

  2. Greek, Ray, and Lisa A Kramer. 2019. "The Scientific Problems with Using Non-human Animals to Predict Human Response to Drugs and Disease " In Animal Experimentation: Working Towards a Paradigm Change. Human-Animal Studies. Volume 22., edited by Kathrin Herrmann and Kimberley Jayne, 391-416. Boston: Brill.

  3. Animal Models of Cancer in Light of Evolutionary Biology and Complexity Science in The Research and Biology of Cancer. iConcept Press. ISBN 978-14775549-9-9. 2013
  4. Animal Models in Drug Development in Sivakumar Gowder (Editor) New Insights into Toxicity and Drug Testing. ISBN 980-953-307-844-6. 2013
  5. Greek, R. Medical Research with Animals. In Animal Rights And Animal Welfare. Volume 2. 2nd edition. Bekoff, M (Ed.). Greenwood Press. 2010. P373-377.
  6. Greek, R. Animals in Science. In Bekoff, M (Ed.) Human-Animal Relationships. Greenwood Press. 2007. P1261-4.
  1. Shanks, N and Greek R. Animal Models in Light of Evolution.  BrownWalker 2009. Designed for readers with a strong scientific background, this book provides a detailed and highly authoritative explanation of AFMA’s position on animals as predictive models.
  2. Greek, R and Shanks, N. FAQs About the Use of FAQs About the Use of Animals in Science: A handbook for the scientifically perplexed. University Press of America. 2009. This book provides an explanation of AFMA’s position and is geared to the non-scientist.

AFMA encourages people interested in this topic to read the two books above as they are the most current books available. AFMA suggests that scientists read the articles in the peer-reviewed literature listed above in addition to Animal Models in Light of Evolution. The three books below are accurate but outdated.

3. Greek and Greek. What Will We Do If We Don't Experiment On Animals? Medical Research for the Twenty-first Century. Trafford 2004.

4. Greek and Greek. Specious Science (Continuum 2002).

5. Greek and Greek: Sacred Cows and Golden Geese: The Human Cost of Experiments on Animals (Continuum 2000).


  1. In March 2006 Dr. Ray Greek debated Dr. James Hicks at the University of California-Irvine.View the transcript here.
  2. The World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences held in August 2002 featured a debate between Dr. Greek and Michael Festing.View the video here.
  3. At the University of Buffalo in May 2005 Dr. Greek debated Andrew Skolnick, a science and medical journalist and the Executive Director of the Commission for Scientific Medicine and Mental Health in Amherst, NY.View the Video here
  4. On September 26, 2007 Dr. Greek debated Dr. Eric Sandgren of the University of Wisconsin on the use of animals as predictive models for humans.View the Video here.

Critique of position of The Humanimal Trust November 2017

Essay by Elizabeth Baker regarding FDA requirements

Shanks, N. Greek, R. Nobis, N. and Greek, J. Animals and Medicine: Do Animal Experiments Predict Human Responses? Skeptic 2007;13(3):44-51.

For animal protectionists

Working with animal protectionists.

What is needed in order to end vivisection?

How animal protection groups are delaying the end of vivisection


  1. In June, 2017 Dr Ray Greek visited Vancouver, BC and delivered three lectures. One was recorded and is available at . Dr Greek addressed Trans-Species Modeling Theory and how the word predict is used in science.

  2. In September 2011, Dr. Ray Greek gave a lecture at the University of Toronto titled “Animals, Science, & Research.” The video of the lecture is now available at

  3. On February 16, 2010 Drs. Shanks and Greek participated in a panel discussion at UCLA: The Science and Ethics of Animal Research. View the video here.
  4. Dr. Greek participated in a discussion on where Michael Conn of OHSU refused his offer to debate the merits of animal models at OHSU. 
  5. On September 26, 2007 Dr. Ray Greek debated Dr. Eric Sandgren of the University of Wisconsin on the use of animals as predictive models for humans.View the transcript here. View the video here.
  6. At the University of Buffalo in May 2005: Dr Greek debated Andrew Skolnick a science and medical journalist and the Executive Director of the Commission for Scientific Medicine and Mental Health in Amherst, NY. View the Video here View the transcript here.
  7. The World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences held in August 2002 featured a debate between Dr Ray Greek and Michael Festing.View the video here. View the transcript here.
  1. Online discussion regarding Learning from Animals: Evolutionary Medicine with a Twist: a book review by Dr Harriet Hall
  2. Is There Variation Among Vaccine Recipients? A Response to Questions from Dario Ringach and the Relevance of This Discussion for Claims Regarding Animal Models
  3. Response to criticisms from Orac
  4. Science again rejects letter correcting a mistake they made
  5. An open letter regarding the February 16, 2010 panel discussion at UCLA
  6. Response from Dr. Ray Greek to an open letter from Joaquín M. Fuster, MD, Ph.D., and Professor at UCLA School of Medicine
  7. Open letter regarding comments on essay"Opponents of animal research should get their facts right" by Dario Ringach
  8. Dr. Greek responds to Dario L. Ringach,J.David Jentsch,and Journal of Neurophysiology
  9. Dr. Ray Greek responds to Dr. Adrian Morrison’s new book  An Odyssey with Animals
  10. AFMA and the October 2008 issue of Nature Medicine (October 2008)
  11. Response (unprinted) to op-ed by Frankie Trull in LA Times (August 2008)
  12. Conn and Parker accuse us of taking quotes out of context (June 2008)
  13. Response (indirect) to Skeptic article By Skeptic contributor Harriet Hall MD (June 2008)
  14. The origin of speciesism by LaFollette and Shanks
  15. Two Models of Models in Biomedical Research by LaFollette and Shanks
  16. Utilizing animals by LaFollette and Shanks
  17. Animal Experimentation: the Legacy of Claude Bernard by LaFollette and Shanks
  18. Animal models in biomedical research: some epistemological worries by LaFollette and Shanks in Public Aff Q. 1993 Apr;7(2):113-30

Interview by Jenni Rempel of Animal Voices, Vancouver, BC.

Interview with Hen House

Interview with Animal Voices

Animals Today Radio interview

Critical thinking is vital in order to be an educated person. It is also vital to understand critical thinking in order to evaluate animal modeling. In order to understand many aspects of life, a minimal understanding of science is also mandatory. The best, and perhaps the only, way to accomplish this is by a formal education—attending a college or university—and taking courses in critical thinking and science. Unfortunately, many people have not done, and cannot do, that or they graduated from college with a degree but without an education in science or critical thinking.

Viewing and reading the following 3 websites and books are, in my opinion, the best and most efficient way to learn about critical thinking.

  1. Gary Marcus: Kluge: The Haphazard Evolution of the Human Mind
  2. Video courses by Kevin deLaplante.  I suggest starting with the following 3 which are available for free on YouTube. The below are relatively short. More videos can be found at deLaplante’s website.
  3. Steve Novella et al. The Skeptics Guide to the Universe

The below are websites and books I recommend as an introductionto science and critical thinking. Some are free others are not. Learning about science and critical thinking is best accomplished in a formal setting. Mastering these topics is a life-long endeavour.